Posts Categorised: Crime and crime prevention

Proactive Policing: Effects on Crime and Communities

Native correa/Paper Monkey

“Proactive policing, as a strategic approach used by police agencies to prevent crime, is a relatively new phenomenon in the United States. It developed from a crisis in confidence in policing that began to emerge in the 1960s because of social unrest, rising crime rates, and growing skepticism regarding the effectiveness of standard approaches to policing. In response, beginning in the 1980s and 1990s, innovative police practices and policies that took a more proactive approach began to develop. This report uses the term “proactive policing” to refer to all policing strategies that have as one of their goals the prevention or reduction of crime and disorder and that are not reactive in terms of focusing primarily on uncovering ongoing crime or on investigating or responding to crimes once they have occurred.”

Source: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (2017) and the ebook (336 pages) is available from this link (open access).


The concept and measurement of violence against women and men

Collins Beach/Flickr

“How should research and new ways of thinking about violence improve its measurement? Could improved measurement change policy? The book is a guide to how the measurement of violence can be best achieved. It shows how to make femicide, rape, domestic violence, and FGM visible in official statistics. It offers practical guidance on definitions, indicators and coordination mechanisms. It reflects on theoretical debates on ‘what is gender’, ‘what is violence’, and ‘the concept of coercive control’. and introduces the concept of ‘gender saturated context’. Analysing the socially constructed nature of statistics and the links between knowledge and power, it sets new standards and guidelines to influence the measurement of violence in the coming decades.”

Source: Walby, S. ert al. (2017). Policy Press and available from this link (open access).

The mandate and activities of a specialized crime reduction policing unit in Canada

Manly Beach/Flickr

“There has been a lexical shift in policing terminology from ‘crime prevention’ to ‘crime reduction.’ Still, the overarching goals continue to include addressing crime and disorder and providing public protection. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) has developed specialized crime reduction units (CRUs) as one strategy to achieve these objectives; however, there has been limited research on these units’ mandates and crime reduction strategies in a Canadian policing context. This paper presents the findings of qualitative interviews and descriptive statistics collected from one RCMP CRU to examine how the Unit’s officers articulated the specific tasks established in their mandate and whether their policing activities reflected the mandate’s distinctive objectives.”

Source: Peters, A. M., & Cohen, I. M. (2017). Police Practice and Research, and available from this link (subscription journal).

Indigenous Australians And The Criminal Justice System

Sunset from North Head/E. Grimm

“This paper provides an overview of national statistics pertaining to the high level of incarceration of Indigenous Australians and the socioeconomic background to that phenomenon. The paper goes on to consider how to address this issues by applying the traditional criminal justice principles of equal justice, personal responsibility, and fair punishment. National averages are useful for identifying broad trends. However, these trends are not consistent across jurisdictions and communities and the below should be read with that in mind.”

Source: Bushnell, A. (2017). Institute of Public Affairs  and available from this link (open access).

A Blueprint for Interagency and Cross-Jurisdictional Data Sharing

Manly Sunset/Flickr

“This blueprint offers practical lessons for launching data sharing, integration, and analysis projects that can better inform crime prevention and reduction strategies, with a focus on spatial analysis. It addresses the major challenges those engaged in data sharing projects will encounter and describes strategies to overcome those challenges. The blueprint also serves as a guide on the spatial-statistical methods that can facilitate cross-sector analysis; new trends in the technology, culture, and practice of data sharing; and the potential for future interagency and cross-jurisdictional data sharing and analyses to inform public safety strategies.”

Source: La Vigne, N. (2017). Urban Institute and available from this link (open access).

Australia’s criminal justice costs: an international comparison


Collins beach/PaperMonkey

“Overall, there is reason to believe that Australians are receiving worse value for criminal justice spending than many other countries. Australians report their concern about crime, governments respond by hiring more police, and this feeds through the system to increased incarceration and higher costs. But the original problem – Australians’ perception of crime – persists. Either the increased spending is not preventing the growth of crime, or it is failing to reassure the public of their safety, or both. This report underscores the need for criminal justice reform in Australia.”

Source: Institute of Public Affairs (2017) and available from this link (open access).

A quantitative study of Prince Albert’s crime/risk reduction approach to community safety



“Faced with escalating crime rates and increasing demands for services, the Prince Albert Police Service led a mobilization effort to implement a crime/risk reduction strategy called Community Mobilization Prince Albert (CMPA). This study examines the evolution of crime prevention practices from traditional police-based practices that rely on focused enforcement practices, to the emerging risk reduction model, wherein police-led partnerships with community agencies are developing responses to the unmet needs of individuals and families facing acutely elevated risk (AER).”

Source: Sawatsky, M. J., Ruddell, R., & Jones, N. A. (2017).  Journal of community safety and well-being, and available from this link (open access).

Mixed signals for police improvement



“The development of a Crime Severity Score for England and Wales by the Office for National Statistics represents an important step towards a more sophisticated, two dimensional understanding of police recorded crime data. In the first paper in the Perspectives in policing series Andy Higgins examines what it tells us about recent changes in the policing environment, considers its limitations as a tool for understanding crime and flags up some potential hazards in its usage, particularly as a tool for making judgements about ‘performance’.”

Source:  Higgins, A. (2017). Perspectives in policing. Police Foundation (UK) and available from this link (open access).

Evaluating Indigenous programs: a toolkit for change



“Analysis of 49 Indigenous program evaluation reports [including law enforcement], found only three used rigorous methodology. Overall, the evaluations were characterised by a lack of data and the absence of a control group, as well as an overreliance on anecdotal evidence. Adopting a co-accountability approach to evaluation will ensure that both the government agency funding the program and the program provider delivering the program are held accountable for results. An overarching evaluation framework could assist with the different levels of outcomes expected over the life of the program and the various indicators needed to measure whether the program is meeting its objectives. Feedback loops and a process to escalate any concerns will help to ensure government and program providers keep each other honest and lessons are learnt.”

Source: Hudson, S. (2017). Centre for Independent Studies and available from this link (open access).

How to design for large-scale multi-stakeholder co-creation initiatives: reframing crime prevention challenges with the police in Denmark

Blue Groper/Flickr

“The police in Denmark have made a strategic intent to engage and activate external stakeholders in crime prevention efforts. However, knowledge of how to unfold the potential of such multi-stakeholder, co-creation-based business models is scarce. The current study was initiated to explore the roles of design thinking and strategic visualization in designing for multi-stakeholder, co-creation-based business models.”

Source: Degnegaard, R., Degnegaard, S., & Coughlan, P. (2015).  Journal of Design, Business & Society, and available from this link (open access).