Posts Categorised: Crime and crime prevention

Extending the remit of evidence-based policing

Clouds and pine trees/Flickr

“This article argues that the two dominant approaches to EBP, experimental criminology and crime science, offer limited scope for the development of a comprehensive knowledge base for policing. Although both approaches share a common commitment to the values of science, each recognizes their limited coverage of policing topics. The fundamental difference between them is what each considers ‘best’ evidence. This article critically examines the generation of evidence by these two approaches and proposes an extension to the range of issues EBP should cover by utilizing a greater plurality of methods to exploit relevant research.”

Source: Brown, J., Belur, J., Tompson, L., McDowall, A., Hunter, G., & May, T. (2018). International Journal of Police Science & Management, and available from this link (subscription journal).

Police Effectiveness in a Changing World: Slough site report

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“Throughout the project we drew on the wider evidence-base on police effectiveness to promote local partnerships, to better deal with the ‘changing world’ and to find sustainable solutions to local crime problems. Most importantly we sought to learn lessons from the process of working with forces on the ground.”

Source: The Police Foundation (UK) and available from this link (open access).

Criminal Justice Law Reform Challenges for the Future

Lichen/PaperMonkey

“This chapter will examine Australia’s addiction to prison. It will commence by examining where we have arrived at in relation to our use of imprisonment, and why we must turn this around. In particular, it will consider the monetary and non-monetary costs of imprisonment, and the evidence on the crime prevention effects of prison. It will then posit what a new future in criminal justice might look like, drawing inspiration from recent development in the United States (US) and United Kingdom (UK). The role of the media, research on sentencing and public opinion, impact on victims, and the emerging case for justice reinvestment will also be considered.”

Source:  Bartels, L. (2017). New Directions for Law in Australia (Chapter 9) and available from this link (open access).

Pathways to offending for young Sudanese Australians

Native correa/PaperMonkey

“Many Sudanese Australians have faced re-settlement challenges since migrating to Australia from the late 1990s onwards. Challenges have included language barriers, obtaining stable housing, acquiring employment, acculturative stressors and discrimination. Moreover, many have been exposed to pre-migratory traumas and family fragmentation. Despite these difficulties, the vast majority of Sudanese Australians have integrated successfully into the fabric of Australian society.”

Source: Shepherd, S. M., Newton, D., & Farquharson, K. (2017). Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology, and available from this link (subscription journal).

Using ambulance data to inform violence prevention : A guide for police, public health and violence prevention partnerships

View from Shelly Beach/Flickr

“The use of ambulance data for crime reduction is a form of injury surveillance. Under this practice, data for assault-based injuries is shared with the police and Community Safety Partnerships (CSPs) to help them identify where violent crime is taking place, which in turn allows police to target their resources to reduce violent offending.”

Source: Sutherland, A., Strang, L., Stepanek, M. and Giacomantonio, C. (2017).  RAND Research Report and available from this link (open access).  

Proactive Policing: Effects on Crime and Communities

Native correa/Paper Monkey

“Proactive policing, as a strategic approach used by police agencies to prevent crime, is a relatively new phenomenon in the United States. It developed from a crisis in confidence in policing that began to emerge in the 1960s because of social unrest, rising crime rates, and growing skepticism regarding the effectiveness of standard approaches to policing. In response, beginning in the 1980s and 1990s, innovative police practices and policies that took a more proactive approach began to develop. This report uses the term “proactive policing” to refer to all policing strategies that have as one of their goals the prevention or reduction of crime and disorder and that are not reactive in terms of focusing primarily on uncovering ongoing crime or on investigating or responding to crimes once they have occurred.”

Source: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (2017) and the ebook (336 pages) is available from this link (open access).

 

The concept and measurement of violence against women and men

Collins Beach/Flickr

“How should research and new ways of thinking about violence improve its measurement? Could improved measurement change policy? The book is a guide to how the measurement of violence can be best achieved. It shows how to make femicide, rape, domestic violence, and FGM visible in official statistics. It offers practical guidance on definitions, indicators and coordination mechanisms. It reflects on theoretical debates on ‘what is gender’, ‘what is violence’, and ‘the concept of coercive control’. and introduces the concept of ‘gender saturated context’. Analysing the socially constructed nature of statistics and the links between knowledge and power, it sets new standards and guidelines to influence the measurement of violence in the coming decades.”

Source: Walby, S. ert al. (2017). Policy Press and available from this link (open access).

The mandate and activities of a specialized crime reduction policing unit in Canada

Manly Beach/Flickr

“There has been a lexical shift in policing terminology from ‘crime prevention’ to ‘crime reduction.’ Still, the overarching goals continue to include addressing crime and disorder and providing public protection. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) has developed specialized crime reduction units (CRUs) as one strategy to achieve these objectives; however, there has been limited research on these units’ mandates and crime reduction strategies in a Canadian policing context. This paper presents the findings of qualitative interviews and descriptive statistics collected from one RCMP CRU to examine how the Unit’s officers articulated the specific tasks established in their mandate and whether their policing activities reflected the mandate’s distinctive objectives.”

Source: Peters, A. M., & Cohen, I. M. (2017). Police Practice and Research, and available from this link (subscription journal).

Indigenous Australians And The Criminal Justice System

Sunset from North Head/E. Grimm

“This paper provides an overview of national statistics pertaining to the high level of incarceration of Indigenous Australians and the socioeconomic background to that phenomenon. The paper goes on to consider how to address this issues by applying the traditional criminal justice principles of equal justice, personal responsibility, and fair punishment. National averages are useful for identifying broad trends. However, these trends are not consistent across jurisdictions and communities and the below should be read with that in mind.”

Source: Bushnell, A. (2017). Institute of Public Affairs  and available from this link (open access).

A Blueprint for Interagency and Cross-Jurisdictional Data Sharing

Manly Sunset/Flickr

“This blueprint offers practical lessons for launching data sharing, integration, and analysis projects that can better inform crime prevention and reduction strategies, with a focus on spatial analysis. It addresses the major challenges those engaged in data sharing projects will encounter and describes strategies to overcome those challenges. The blueprint also serves as a guide on the spatial-statistical methods that can facilitate cross-sector analysis; new trends in the technology, culture, and practice of data sharing; and the potential for future interagency and cross-jurisdictional data sharing and analyses to inform public safety strategies.”

Source: La Vigne, N. (2017). Urban Institute and available from this link (open access).