Posts Categorised: Law Enforcement

Under the Radar: The Widespread Use of ‘Out of Court Resolutions’ in Policing Domestic Violence and Abuse in the United Kingdom

Spit to Manly walk/Flickr

“This study investigated the nature and extent of out of court resolutions for domestic abuse using the Freedom of Information Act. Out of court resolutions were used by every UK police force except Scotland to respond to over 5,000 domestic abuse incidents (including intimate partner abuse) in 2014. Some of these incidents related to offences with sentencing tariffs up to life imprisonment. Such widespread use has been taking place ‘under the radar’ in stark contrast to police guidance, has immediate implications for policy and practice, and fundamentally shifts the research terrain in this field.”

Source: Westmarland, N., Johnson, K., & McGlynn, C. (2017). The British Journal of Criminology, and available from this link (open access).

The Unprecedented Opioid Epidemic: As Overdoses Become a Leading Cause of Death, Police, Sheriffs, and Health Agencies Must Step Up Their Response

Tree tails/M. Hardy

“Never has PERF worked on an issue more vexing and painful than the opioids crisis that the  United States is now facing. In just one year, 2016, nearly as many people died from opioid overdoses as all U.S. fatalities during the entire course of the Vietnam War. And despite the huge amount of hard work and thoughtful strategies that police chiefs and sheriffs have thrown at this problem over the last few years, the crisis has not yet peaked. It is still getting worse, according to federal statistics.”

Source: Police Executive Research Forum and available from this link (open access).

 

Expert Panel on Terrorism and Violent Extremism Prevention and Response Powers: Reports 1 and 2

Grasses/Eva

“The panel was tasked with examining and evaluating the operation and effectiveness of Victoria’s key legislation and related powers and procedures of relevant agencies to prevent, monitor, investigate and respond to terrorism. The second report from the panel extends the focus of the first report to include the full spectrum of policies and programs to prevent and intervene early in relation to emerging risks of violent extremism, or to respond rapidly to risks after they have eventuated.”

Source: Lay, K. & Harper, D. (2017). Government of Victoria and available from this link (open access).

Missing persons: Who is at risk?

Trees and clouds/Flickr

“In 2008 the Australian Institute of Criminology (AIC) released a comprehensive study on missing persons in Australia, which presented national data on at-risk groups and identified best practice related to prevention, early intervention, referral processes and support services. This report followed an earlier AIC study that examined the incidence and impact of missing person events. The current study, commissioned by the National Missing Persons Coordination Centre (NMPCC) of the Australian Federal Police, updates missing person statistics and describes the extent to which known risk factors correlate with categories of missing persons.”

Source: Bricknall, S. (2017). Australian Institute of Criminology Research report and available from this link (open access).

Categories: Law Enforcement

(Re)configuring the criminal justice response to human trafficking: a complex-systems perspective

Grevillea

“The multidimensional complexities associated with the criminal justice response to human trafficking are well documented. The transient and subversive nature of human trafficking as organised crime and the large number of multidisciplinary role-players involved in coordinating cross jurisdictional efforts to prevent, investigate and prosecute such cases, contribute to this complex undertaking. Complex systems theory suggests that a complex social problem such as human trafficking cannot be approached by using a linear or simplified lens, and requires a holistic perspective on the complex interactions between actors, and emergent behaviour in both the criminal justice system and the human trafficking system that it seeks to combat.”

Source: van der Watt, M., & van der Westhuizen, A. (2017). Police Practice and Research, and available from this link (subscription journal).

Proactive Policing: Effects on Crime and Communities

Native correa/Paper Monkey

“Proactive policing, as a strategic approach used by police agencies to prevent crime, is a relatively new phenomenon in the United States. It developed from a crisis in confidence in policing that began to emerge in the 1960s because of social unrest, rising crime rates, and growing skepticism regarding the effectiveness of standard approaches to policing. In response, beginning in the 1980s and 1990s, innovative police practices and policies that took a more proactive approach began to develop. This report uses the term “proactive policing” to refer to all policing strategies that have as one of their goals the prevention or reduction of crime and disorder and that are not reactive in terms of focusing primarily on uncovering ongoing crime or on investigating or responding to crimes once they have occurred.”

Source: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (2017) and the ebook (336 pages) is available from this link (open access).

 

Police techniques for investigating serious violent crime: A systematic review

North Head/Hardy

“Police use a variety of techniques in their investigation of serious violent crimes, such as homicide, robbery, assault and sexual assault. This paper systematically reviews experimental and quasiexperimental research on the effectiveness of these investigative techniques. Meta-analysis was used to combine effect sizes across multiple studies examining the same technique, crime and outcome.”

Source: Higginson, A.,  Eggins, E. & Mazerolle, L. (2017). Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice and available from this link (open access). 

Categories: Law Enforcement

Evaluating the Effects of Police Body-Worn Cameras: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Grevillea

“Police officer body-worn cameras (BWCs) have been promoted as a technological mechanism that will improve policing and the perceived legitimacy of the police and legal institutions. While there is a national movement to deploy BWCs widely, evidence of their effectiveness is limited. To estimate the average effects of BWCs, we conducted a randomized controlled trial involving 2,224 Metropolitan Police Department (MPD) officers in Washington, DC. The primary outcomes of interest were documented uses of force and civilian complaints, although we also measure a variety of additional policing activities and judicial outcomes. We estimated very small average treatment effects on all measured outcomes, none of which rose to statistical significance.”

Source: Yokum, D., Ravishankar, A., & Coppock, A. (2017). The Lab@DC and available from this link (open access).

‘It’s about using the full sanction catalogue’: on boundary negotiations in a multi-agency organised crime investigation

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Manly dawn/Griffin

“This study provides a unique empirical window into an inter-organisational investigation against a large organised crime network in Norway. Building on interview data from the participants in the multi-agency investigation team that was summoned for this case, the article discusses co-ordination issues that arise when organisations with different goals and interests collaborate to reach a common goal. The article studies co-ordination from inside of the investigation team and discusses the interchangeable use of criminal and administrative law. While bridging organisational boundaries enable agencies to pool powers, co-ordination across organisations may challenge the protection of sometimes conflicting aims and interests.”

Source: Bjelland, H. F., & Vestby, A. (2017). Policing and Society, available from this link (subscription journal).

Firearm legislation in Australia 21 years after the National Firearms Agreement

Stones & rocks/Eva

“Four consecutive formal reports have now found that no Australian State or Territory has at any stage fully complied with the 1996 or 2002 firearm resolutions which collectively formed the National Firearms Agreement. In important areas, State and Territory legislation has been blocked or revised to dilute the effect of the NFA. This report, commissioned and funded by Gun Control Australia, finds that on balance, both non-compliance from day one and two decades of political pressure have steadily reduced restrictions and undermined the NFA’s original intent.”

Source: Alpers, P. & Rossetti, A. (2017). Gunpolicy.org and available from this link (open access).

Categories: Law Enforcement